Forged stamps of Nicaragua

1862-1880. Liberty Cap on Mountain Top. 1 Centavo

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_1c_Forgery

Forgery

1862-1880. Liberty Cap on Mountain Top. 2 Centavos

Genuine vs. Forgeries

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_2c_Genuine

Genuine

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_2c_Forgery

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_2c_Forgery2

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_2c_Forgery3

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_2c_Torres_illustration

Illustration by Plácido Ramón de Torres: Album ilustrado de sellos de correo, Barcelona 1879. Torres sold illustrations to various dealers/forgers from 1864 onwards, as well as made forgeries himself.

1862-1880. Liberty Cap on Mountain Top. 5 Centavos

Genuine vs. Forgeries

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Genuine

Genuine

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery2

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery3

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery4

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery5

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_5c_Forgery6

Forgery

1869-1880. Liberty Cap on Mountain Top. 10 Centavos

Forgeries

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_10c_Forgery

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_10c_Forgery2

Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_10c_Torres_illustration

Illustration by Plácido Ramón de Torres: Album ilustrado de sellos de correo, Barcelona 1879. Torres sold illustrations to various dealers/forgers from 1864 onwards, as well as made forgeries himself.

1869-1880. Liberty Cap on Mountain Top. 25 Centavos

Genuine vs. Forgery

Nicaragua_1862-1880_Liberty_Cap_25c_Genuine

Genuine

Nicaragua_1869-1880_Liberty_Cap_25c_Forgery

Forgery

1931. Airmail

Forgery

Nicaragua_1931_Airmail_15c-on-25c_Forgery

Forged overprint on genuine stamp

Fournier Forged Postmark

Nicaragua_Fournier_Forged_Postmark

ADMINISTRATION DE CORREOS NICARAGUA 18 JUL. 18

Thanks to Antonius-Ra for images of genuine Liberty Cap stamps

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Literature

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  • 1-49. Issues of 1862-1892. Official reprints: S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua – 1862-1962”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 72 (February 1963): 23-27. See listings below for more citations.
  • 1-12. American Bank Note Issues, 1862, 1869-71, 1878-80. Forgeries and fraudulent postmarks: George Pinner, letter to the Editor “Some Early Forgeries”, Nicarao, Vol. 5 (April 1, 1995): 10. The first issue, 1,2: Peter Marshall, “Forgeries Of The First Issue”, Nicarao, Vol. 6 (January 1996): 2-5; Paper XIII, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalog Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, p.45. Ten plus forgeries of the first issue: Peter Marshall and Michael Schreiber, “Nicaragua’s early forgeries helped collectors fill album spaces“, Nicarao, Vol. 19 (October 2010): 10-20. Used copies are normally pen cancelled and there are proofs, overprinted “SPECIMEN”: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.1. Block of 12 lithographed imperforate forgeries: Peter Marshall and Michael Schreiber, “Block of 12 of 1871 i-centavo Maribios cruely made lithographed forgeries“, Nicarao, Vol. 19 (January 2010): 1,6,7. Forgeries and Seebeck reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at No. 6: 120. Forgeries: John H. Langley, “Unraveling Nicaragua’s First Three Issues: Scott Numbers 1-12”, Scott’s Monthly Journal, (August 1982): 12-18. Revenue obliterations distinguished from postal cancellations: Anon. Note, American Philatelist, Vol. 95 (1981): 356. Reprints: S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua – 1862-1962”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 72 (February 1963): 23-27, continued at (March 1963): 53-55, and at (April 1963): 63-65, at pp.23,24. Reprints and forgeries: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262. (Yvert 1-12). Forgeries of the 1c, 10c and 25c, two forgeries of the 2c, six forgeries of the 5c, genuine and fraudulent postmarks: Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 2, pp.134-42. See 3-12 below for more citations to those two issues.
  • 3-12. Issues of 1869-71 and 1878-80. The 1892 Seebeck reprints: Clyde Maxwell, “Reprints of Nicaragua’s First Issues”, Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 2; Anon. Note: The Mainsheet, Vol. 3 (September-November 1974): 22-25. Peter Marshall, ”Seebeck used fake geometric cancel on 1892 reprints”, Nicarao, Vol. 20 (July 2011); 3. Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-28, at (April 1991): 19-24, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 16-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, at (April 1992): 8-17, and at (September 1990): 8, at the 4th column of the September 1990 issue. Reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.2. Reprints: John H. Langley, “Unraveling Nicaragua’s First Three Issues: Scott Numbers 1-12”, Scott’s Monthly Journal, August 1982, pp.12-18; Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue. Spiro forgery of the 1c perforated: Paper XLVI, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, pp.113,14. Forged overprint on the 25c rouletted: Clyde Maxwell, “Reprints of Nicaragua’s First Issues”, Nicarao, Vol. 1 (January 1991): 11-13.
  • Manuscript cancellations only until 1869 (the first canceller arrived in 1869): S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua – 1862-1962”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 72 (February 1963): 23-27.
  • Forged Granada cancellations on Seebeck reprints: Peter Marshall, “Forged and bogus cancels of Granada: forged 3/G in Octagon, bogus 3 in circle“, Nicarao, Vol. 20 (October 2011): 1,20. Anon., “Questions, Feedback, Updates, For the Record: Fake geometric cancel on 1892 Seebeck reprints of 1862-80 first issues“, Nicarao, Vol.20 (October 2011): 19.
  • Seebecks:
  • 20-120. Seebeck (Hamilton Bank Note Company) Issues of 1890-1899. Reprints are on different paper: Sid Buegeleisen, “Nicaragua – And Along Came Seebeck”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 62 (March 24, 1956): 102,3. Seebeck reprints generally: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries And Reprints of Nicaragua”, Nicarao, Vol. 5 (July 1995): 13-15, continued at (October 1995): 19-21. For more citations see the following sections to “121-33”, the first issue following the Seebeck’s.
  • 20-60. Seebeck Issues of 1890-1893. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 1)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 46 (November 1967): 335-59. Reprints: S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 68 (March 1959): 53-55. Seebeck and other fraudulent postmarks: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940/ A Philatelic Handbook, pp.4-7. Columbus issue, 40-49, distinguished from Telegraph stamps: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262 (Yvert 40-59); J. Dorn (Publisher), The Forged Stamps of all Countries, p.169; Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 61-80. Seebeck Issues of 1894 and 1895. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 2)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (January 1968): 27-33. CTO and fraudulent cancellation of the 10p stamps: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog. Reprints of the 1894 issue, Seebeck and other fraudulent postmarks: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.8,4.
  • 81-109M. Map and Coat of Arms Regular issues, 1896, 1897 and 1898. Seebeck reprints on thick paper (some were used postally): Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.121 of No. 6. Seebeck reprints: Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22 , at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.15, first and second columns, and the first column of p.16 of the January 1991 issue. Seebeck reprints and fraudulent postmarks: S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 68 (February 1959): 37,38, continued at (March 1959): 53-55, and at (April 1963): 63-65. at p.55. Reprints: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog. See below for more citations re the Map issues.
  • 81-89, 89A-89I, 90-98, 98A-98I.. Map issues of 1896 and 1897. Two reprints (one of the watermarked issue), Seebeck and other fraudulent postmarks: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.10 and 13 (pages 10 and 11 revised 1992),4. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues” (Parts 3 and 4), The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (March 1968): 79-84, continued at (May 1968): 163-74. Don Glickstein, “Seebecks: The Scourge of Latin American Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol 99 (October 1985): 914. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262 (Yvert 81-98, 99-109). Seebeck reprints of the Peso values of the 1897 issues: S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua – 1862-1962”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 72 (February 1963): 23-27.
  • 99-109, 109A-109M. Coat of Arms issues of 1898. Reprints, telegraph remainders similiar to the unwatermarked issue: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.14,15. Albert Quast and Robert Willer “Nicaragua, The Seebeck Issues (Part 4)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (May 1968): 163-74. Don Glickstein, “Seebecks: The Scourge of Latin American Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol 99 (October 1985): 914. 99-109: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.362 (Yvert 99-109).
  • 110-20. Justice issue of 1899. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 5)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (July 1968): 207-212.
  • Fournier fraudulent postmark on Seebeck reprints: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262, (note following Yvert 1908).
  • Postmarks fasified by Seebeck. S.C. Daft, “Nicaragua”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 68 (February 1959): 37,38, continued at (March 1959): 53-55, at p.55.
  • Fraudulent postmarks on Seebeck reprints: Joseph M. Sousa, “Counterfeit Cancellations of Nicaragua”, Mount Nittany Philatelic Society Newsletter, Vol. 1 (May 1969): 50,51; Joseph M. Sousa, “Counterfeit Cancellations of Nicaragua and Guatemala”, American Philatelist, Vol. 77 (November 1963): 138,39.
  • Genuine cancellations of the original Hamilton Bank Note (Seebeck) issues: Joseph M. Sousa, “Cancellations Used on the Original Nicaraguan Seebeck Issues of 1890-99”, The American Philatelic Congress Book 33 (1967): 161-68; reprinted in Nicarao, Vol.16 (April 2007): 4- 11.
  • Seebeck CTO postmarks: Jim Cross, letter to the Editor “Cancelled to Order Seebecks”, Nicarao, Vol. 4 (January 1994): 3,4.
  • Fraudulent Seebeck cancellations: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994):119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at pp.121,22 of No. 6.
  • de Thuin fraudulent postmarks. James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.299-301.
  • 121-33. American Bank Note Co., Mt. Momotombo Issue, 1900. CTO cancellations: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries And Reprints of Nicaragua”, Nicarao, Vol. 5 (July 1995): 13-15, continued at (October 1995): 19-21, at p.19 of the October 1995 issue; Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.122 of No. 6.
  • 134-36. Provisional issue (surcharge under date), 1901. 1903 Government reprint (for non- postal purposes): Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.18 (revised 1992); Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.20, second column of the April 1991 issue. Reprint of the 2c Provisional stamp: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262 (Subsequent issues. Overprinted stamps – 1901); Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 137-43. Provisional issue, overprinted on Postage Due Stamps, 1901. Nordenholt reprints of the 5c and 10c: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.123 of No. 6. The 1904 Reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.19. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262 (Subsequent issues. Overprinted stamps). Official imitation of overprint: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 144-51. Provisional issue (surcharge above date), 1901. Characteristics of the genuine overprint: Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.21, columns first and second of the April 1991 issue. Official imitation of surcharge: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 177. 15c on 10c H. Braunlich print of Mt. Momotombo, 1904. de Thuin forged surcharge: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.295.
  • 193-95, 212-15. Provisional issues of 1906-08 (locally surcharged) and 1907-08. de Thuin forged surcharge: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.295.
  • 197, O169. 20c (locally surcharged) Provisional, 1906-08 and Official stamp, 1907. de Thuin forged surcharge: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.296.
  • 200. 1p on 5p (locally surcharged), 1907. de Thuin forged surcharge: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.295.
  • 212-15. 10c Provisional stamps, surcharge reading down, 1907-8. See “193-95, 212-15” above. 217-34. Provisional Issues (Overprinted revenue stamps), 1908. Fournier fraudulent postmark: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262 (1908).
  • 235,36. 10c Provisionals (on peso values), 1909. de Thuin forged surcharge (two types): James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.293.
  • 279-85. 1911 Provisionals on railroad coupon tax stamps. de Thuin forged surcharge: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.296-98.
  • 312. 1⁄2c on 15c, 1913-14. Forged double surcharge: Louis E. Repeta, “Forged Double Surcharge“, Nicarao, Vol.15 (July 2006): 6.
  • 400. Forged overprint is on the rotary press print of 1924; genuine is on the flat plate print of 1921: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.144 of No. 7. Trial printings of surcharge: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 420-21. Overprinted “Sello Postal”, 1923. de Thuin forged overprint (three types): James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.290,92,96.
  • 427-52. Overprinted issues of 1927. Cancellation of remainders: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.144 of No. 7. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.289-90.
  • 525-35. Opening of the New Post Office at Managua Issue, 1930. Clyde R. Maxwell, “Reprints Of The Earthquake Commemorative Issue”, Nicarao, Vol. 1 (April 1993): 18-19.
  • 540-48. Overprinted issue of 1931. de Thuin forged overprint (2 types): James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.289.
  • 556-79, C20-C24, C67-C76. Earthquake and Railroad regular postage and airmail issues of 1932. Reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, (revised 1992), pp.76,78. Private reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72. Richard N. Cohn, “Nicaraguan Airmail Counterfeits fool the Unwary Collector“, Chambers Stamp Journal, Vol.XXVII (June 7, 1948): 116,21. Richard N. Cone, “Modern Counterfeits of Nicaragua”, American Philatelist, Vol. 61 (August 1948): 883,84. Reprints and forgeries of the Leon Sauce RR stamps: A.K., “Nicaragua: 1932 Rivas and Leon Sauce Railways”, The Mainsheet, Vol. 4 (March-August, 1976): 77. Private reprints of Rivas Railroad regular and Airmail issue, the Earthquake Airmail issue: Richard N. Cone, “Modern Counterfeits of Nicaragua”, Mekeel’s Weekly Stamp News, Vol. 70 (April 12, 1948): 251, 262,268, continued at (April 19, 1948): 271, 282,283, (April 26, 1948): 292, 293, 297, 300; Richard N. Cone, “Modern Counterfeits of Nicaragua” (follow-up article), Mekeel’s Weekly Stamp News, Vol. 70 (May 31, 1948): 375; the use of the words “counterfeit” for private reprints and “cancelled to order” for counterfeit cancellation in this part and the earlier parts of this article were criticized by Edwin Mueller in “from an Expert’s Desk” column, Mercury Stamp Journal, Vol. 1, Whole No. 8 (December 1948): 187. Richard N. Cone, “Nicaraguan Commemoratives, 1932-1933”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 3 ((July 1, 1949): 54,55, continued at (August 1, 1949): 58,59. Reprints of 556-68, 570-74, 575-79, C20-24, and C67-C76: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog, Notes after 568, 574, 579.
  • 603-28,C112-C146,C152-C62. Control Bar overprint, 1935 and 1936. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.289.
  • 686. 10c on 1c, 1941. Forged overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-23, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6, and p.170 of No. 8.
  • C9-C13. Airmail Provisionals, 1931. Forged surcharge: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6 and p.146 of No. 7. de Thuin forged surcharges: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.293,94.
  • C14-C17. Second “Earthquake“ Airmail Provisional Issue (surcharged First Definitive Airmail stamps), 1931. Forged surcharge: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.94; Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6 and p.146 of No. 7. de Thuin forged surcharge (two types): James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.295.
  • C20-C24, C67-C76, Earthquake Reconstruction and Railroads Airmail Issues,1932. Reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.96,103 (revised 1992). Forgeries and fraudulent postmarks: Richard N. Cone, “Nicaragua June 17, 1933 The First Earthquake Provisionals”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 8 (April 15, 1953): 30,31, continued at (May 1, 1953): 34, at p.34. Private reprints: Richard N. Cone, “Dangerous Counterfeits Of 1932 Nicaragua Issues”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 2 (July 1, 1947): 52,53, continued at (July 15,1947): 56,57, at (August 1, 1947): 60,61, at Vol. 3 (January 1, 1948): 2,3, at Vol. 4 (July 15, 1949): 54,55, and at (August 1, 1949): 58-60. See “556-79, C20-C24, C67-C76” for more citations.
  • C25-C29. Provisional issue (surcharged “Vale” and value), 1932. Forged surcharges: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168- 72, at p.120 of No. 6 and p.168 of No. 8. Forged surcharges: Richard N. Cone, “Nicaragua International Air Provisionals” July 11, 1932”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 5 (January 1, 1950): 2-4.
  • C30. International Air Mail Week Issue, 1932. Forged overprint: R.N. Cone, “Nicaragua Air Mail Week, September 11-17, 1932”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 3 (March 15, 1948): 22,23. Measurements of the genuine overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940/ A Philatelic Handbook(Revised 1992), p.98 .
  • C30a. “Aerreo” Error. Forged surcharges: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6 and p.168 of No. 8.
  • C31. Inauguration of Interior Airmail Service, 1932. Forged surcharges: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6, at p.168 of No. 8. Forged overprint and fraudulent postmarks: Richard N. Cone, “Nicaragua Inaugural Inland Airmail, 1932”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 6 (April 1, 1951): 26,27. Measurements of the genuine overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.98 (revised 1992).
  • C45,C46. “Interior – 1932“, with added surcharge, 1932. Forged overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.101 (revised 1992).
  • C67-C76. Rivas and Leon-Sauce Railroad issues, 1932. See ” C20-C24, C67-C76″ and “556-79, C20-C24, C67-C76” for citations.
  • C72-C76. Leon-Sauce RR Issue, 1932. Reprint: Brian Moorhouse, “Nicaragua: The 1932 ‘Leon Sauce Railway’ Airmails (Revised March 2000)”, The Mainsheet, Vol. 25 (February 2000): 2-8.
  • C77-C87, Flag of the Race Commemorative Issue, 1933. Reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.104 (revised 1992). Private reprints: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168- 72, at p.120 of No. 6 and p.169 of No. 8. Richard N. Cone, “Nicaragua – Flag Of The Race Issue”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 3 (August 14, 1948): 58,59; this article was summarized in Anon. Note, Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 5. Richard N. Cone, “Nicaraguan Commemoratives, 1932-1933”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 4 (August 1, 1949): 58,59, continued from (July 1, 1949): 54,55. Reprints: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • C88-C91. International Air Post Week Issue, 1933. Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, p.187. Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.106. Leo J. Harris, “Nicaraguan fakes still being sold“, Stamp Collector (June 13, 1992): 15. Hugh Watchorn, “Latin American Notes” column, American Philatelist, Vol. 79 (May 1966): 625,26. Alexander F. Newall, Airmail Stamps: Fakes & Forgeries, pp.213,14 (Sanabria Airmail Catalogue 130- 33). R.N. Cone, “Nicaragua – International Air Mail Week – 1933”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 7 (April 15, 1952): 30,31, continued at (May 1, 1952): 35, at p.35.
  • C110, C111. Central American Service, 1934,35. Forged surcharges: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6, at p.169 of No. 8.
  • C112-C146. Control Bar overprint, 1935 and 1936. Leo J. Harris, “Nicaraguan fakes still being sold“, Stamp Collector (June 13, 1992): 15. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.289. See “C112-C116”, “C121-C134”, and “C145” for more citations.
  • C112-C116. Control Bar, 1935-36. Forged Control Bar: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries, No. 6 (September 1994): 119-24, continued at No. 7 (December 1994): 143-47, and at No. 8 (April 1995): 168-72, at p.120 of No. 6, and pp.169,70 of No. 8.
  • C121-C134. Control Bar, 1936. Forged Control Bar: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.110.
  • C145. 10c on 25c, Control Bar reading down, 1936. Forged Control Bar: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.109.
  • C152-C62. Control Bar overprint, 1936. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.289.
  • C221B-C221K. 75th Anniversary of Postal Service, 1938. Varieties are from private printing: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog; Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.118,19 (both pages revised, 1992).
  • CO1. Air Post Official, typwritten overprint, 1929. Forged overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.164.
  • CO4-CO8. Air Post Official stamps, 1932. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.290.
  • CO9. 25c black brown Air Post Official Stamp, 1932. Forged overprint and fraudulent postmark: Richard N. Cone, “Nicaragua – Official Air Post Overprinted ‘1931’”, Aero Philatelist’s News, Vol. 4 (May 15, 1949): 38-40.
  • Seebecks:
  • J1-J28. First design Postage Due stamps, 1896, 1897. Albert Quast and Robert Willer “Nicaragua, The Seebeck Issues (Part 4)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47: (May 1968): 163-74. Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1 (July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.22, first column and second column of the January 1991 issue. Don Glickstein, “Seebecks: The Scourge of Latin American Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol 99 (October 1985): 914. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262. 1896 and 1897 reprints of Nos.J8-J28: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog; Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.125,26.
  • J36-J41. Postage Due stamps, carmine, 1899. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 5)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (July 1968): 207-212.
  • J42-J48. Postage Due stamps, American Bank Note print, 1900 (not issued as postage due stamps). Postmarks are favor or fraudulent because issue was not placed in service as postage due stamps: Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue; Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.127.
  • O72-O81. Official stamps, 1896. de Thuin forged overprint (2 types): James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.288.
  • Seebecks issues, 1890-99:
  • O1-O41. Official stamps, 1890–1893. Seebeck and other fraudulent cancellation: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.128-31 and 4. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 1)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 46 (November 1967): 335-59.
  • O42-O61. Official issue of 1894 and Official unwatermarked issue of 1895. Reprints of the 1894 issue: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.132. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 2)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (January 1968): 27-33. Most genuine used copies are overprinted “DIRECCION”: Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.19, first column of the January 1991 issue.
  • O52-O71. Official stamps, 1895. Watermarked stamps are probably reprints, Seebeck and other fraudulent cancellation: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.133 and 4.
  • O82-O117. Official stamps of 1896 and 1897. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The Seebeck Issues (Part 4)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (May 1968): 163-74. Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.19, second column and p.21 first column both of the January 1991 issue. Don Glickstein, “Seebecks: The Scourge of Latin American Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol 99 (October 1985): 914. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.262. Reprints: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog, Note after 109M. Reprints of the unwatermarked, oval Official stamps of 1896 and and the issue of 1897, Seebeck and other fraudulent cancellation of the watermarked and unwatermarked oval stamps of 1896 and the issue of 1897: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.134,35,37 and 4.
  • O118-O139. Official stamps of 1898 and 1899. Albert Quast and Robert Willer, “Nicaragua, The ‘Seebeck’ Issues (Part 5)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 47 (July 1968): 207-212. Reprints of O118-O128: Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17, at p.21, second column of the January 1991 issue; Don Glickstein, “Seebecks: The Scourge of Latin American Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol 99 (October 1985): 914. Reprints of the 1898 series: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog, Note after O128.
  • O151. 2c on 3c Official, 1903. Official imitation of overprint: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog, Note after O154; Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.142 (revised 1992 ).
  • O194. 15c on 3c Official, “Vale“ surcharge, 1908. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.296.
  • O210-O215. Official stamps, overprinted “OFICIAL“, 1909. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.296.
  • O245-O259. Official stamps, overprinted “OFICIAL“, 1912. de Thuin forged overprint: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.288.
  • O344-O355. Official stamps, 1935. Forged Control Bar: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.161.
  • Bluefields, generally. Forged overprint: Joseph B. Leavey, “The Stamps of Nicaragua”, (reprinted from Gibbons Stamp Weekly Vol.10, No.1, July 3, 1909), Nicarao, Vol. 1 (September 1990): 7-10, continued at (January 1991): 13-22, at (April 1991): 20, at (July 1991): 16-22, at Vol. 2 (October 1991): 13-22, at (January 1992): 13-23, and at (April 1992): 8-17; Bernard Davies, “Nicaragua – The Overprints of Bluefields and Cabo”, The London Philatelist, Vol. 88 (September-October 1979): 130-35 (critical of Leavey’s article); Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.184. de Thuin forged overprints: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, p.291. For additional citations, see Bluefields “1L” sections below.
  • 1L38-1L41. “Bluefields” (overprint on 1906 surcharged stamps), 1906-07. Official imitation of overprint: Scott Classic Specialized Catalog.
  • 1L45,46. 5c Bluefields (surcharged in two types), 1906-07. Forged overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, p.189.
  • 2L1-2L47, 2LO1-2LO4. Cabo Gracias A Dios postage issues of 1904-05 and Officials, 1907. Forged overprint: Clyde R. Maxwell, Nicaragua to 1940; A Philatelic Handbook, pp.202-4 (page 204 revised, 1992),6. de Thuin forged overprints: James M. Chemi, James H. Beal and James T, De Voss (editors), The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, pp.287,88.
  • Seebeck CTO postmarks: Jim Cross, letter to the Editor “Cancelled to Order Seebecks”, Nicarao, Vol. 4 (January 1994): 3,4.
  • Fraudulent Seebeck cancellations: Clyde R. Maxwell, “Forgeries and Reprints of Nicaragua”, Fakes & Forgeries (journal), No.6 (September 1994): 121,22.
  • Fraudulent cancellations. Joseph M. Sousa, “Counterfeit Cancellations of Nicaragua and Guatemala”, American Philatelist, Vol. 77 (November 1963): 138,39. Cone, Richard N., “Nicaragua:The End of a Fraud”, The Aero Philatelist Annals, Vol. 1 (October 1953): 39-58. (See note of caution about this article from Varro E. Tyler: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926 – “References”, p.380, column 2).

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