Forged Stamps of Japan

Nippon

Forgery wise, Japan is complicated. Especially the classic period. Numerous forgers have taken a stab at Japan, making it difficult – but not impossible – waters to navigate.

Instead of creating pages showing genuine compared to forgeries, I have chosen to recommend the “Forgery CD” from the International Society of Japanese Philately. It is a indispensable ressource for learning about the forgeries of Japan and at only 50$ is quite a bargain!

In its 2nd edition, the CD contains 2300 pages with more than 2800 images. Below you can see some screenshots:

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Literature

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  • 1-71. Dragons, Cherry Blossoms, Kobans, 1871-84. Location of “Sanko”, “Mozo”, and “Mihon” marks on imitations. Comprehensive treatment of imitations with a mark and also those without a mark: Ron Casey, Thomas L. Zane and Lois M. Evans-de Violini, Forgeries of the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban Postage Stamps of Japan, I.S.J.P. CD- Rom Monograph 1, 2nd Edition, 2002; an Update List is maintained by the I.S.J.P. at their website, http://isjp.org. “Mihon” mark on Scott 28-44: Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Japanese forgeries Inscribed ‘Mihon’“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 20 (April 1965): 49-51. Lois M. Evans, “Japanese Markings of Counterfeits Identified”, American Philatelist, Vol. 84 (October 1970): 890, reprinted in Fakes & Forgeries, No.11 (March 1996): 236-40. George A. Fisher, Jr. “Notes on Postal Markings” Japanese Philately, Vol. 25 (October 1970): 215- 21. “Sanko” and “Mozo”: Joseph M. Sousa, “Japanese Forgeries: Sanko and Mozo Marks”, Mount Nittany Philatelic Society Newsletter, Vol. 1 (March 1969): 36. Location on Dragons and Cherry Blossoms: Varro Tyler, “Sanko And Mozo on Japanese Forgeries”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 63 (November 17, 1956): 366-69, continued at Vol.64 (March 2, 1957): 16,17 (reprinted in Japanese Philately, Vol. 13 (July 1958): 111-16, continued at ((September 1958)): 148-50). “Sanko and Mozo on Japanese Forgeries: Supplemental Notes and Revised Check List”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 69 (December 26, 1959): 426-28; Baron Mitsui Takaharu, “Sanko and Mozo On Japanese Forgeries – Supplement” (to Tyler’s article with the same title in Japanese Philately, Vol. 13, cited above in this section), Japanese Philately, Vol. 13 (November 1958): 213; Varro Tyler, Jr., “Sanko and Mozo: A Revised Check List”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 18 (February 1963): 5-9. “Sanko” and “Mozo” and fraudulent cancellations: Capt. Wm H. Talbot, “Forged Stamps and Forged Cancellations of Japan”, Mekeel’s Weekly Stamp News, Vol. 67 (July 8, 1946): 27,28, continued at (July 22, 1946): 72,73. Location of marks on imitations: Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. II, pp.38,39.Col. Warner F. Bowers, “Forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Stamps (U.S.), Vol. 75 (April 14, 1951): 54,55. Seward C. Simons, “Simple Methods of Detecting Japanese Counterfeits”, Stamps (U.S.). Vol. 31 (June 15, 1940): 389. Fake cancels illustrated: Charles A.L. Swenson, “Surfing the Internet forfake Japanese cancels“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 57 (August 2002): 110,11.

  • 1-8. “Dragons”, 1871 Mon and 1872 Sen issues. The Dragons and Cherry Blossoms were printed from hand-engraved plates of 40. Each stamp in the sheet is slightly different from the others.

    Some imitations are signed with a mark; for the location of the mark, see: Lois M. Evans-de Violini, “Japanese Forgeries” (on CD-ROM cited below). a-m. Ron Casey, Thomas L. Zane and Lois M. Evans-de Violini, Forgeries of the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban Postage Stamps of Japan, I.S.J.P. CD-Rom Monograph 1, 2nd Edition, 2002; an Update List is maintained by the I.S.J.P. at their website, http://isjp.org. m. George A. Fisher, Jr. “Notes on Postal Markings” Japanese Philately, Vol. 25 (October 1970): 215-21. a-e,i,l. W. Metzelaar and Varro E. Tyler, “Forgeries & Imitations Of The Dragon Stamps Of Japan”, Monograph 4, Japanese Philately, Vol. 26 (February 1971). a. Stanley Kronenberg, “The Spiro Reversed ‘S’“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 21 (June 1966): 140. g. Anon., “More Counterfeits”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 29 (June 1974): 130,31. a. Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4. a. Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. e,m. Kristian Wilhelmsen, “The Handstamps on Wada Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (December 1980): 291-302. a,m. Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1: 526-30; Paper LIX, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, p.141. e. The 300m and 2s stamps: Harold E.M. Bradshaw, “Forgery Identification of Hand-Engraved Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 14 (April 1959): 41. l. Official reproductions distinguished: Michael E. Ruggiero, “Dragon Reproductions”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (February 1995): 25,26; Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue (Nos.6,7). Three forgeries of the 48m, four forgeries of the 100m, two forgeries of the 200m, four forgeries of the 500m: Alden C. Johnson, Forgeries Old and New, Vol. 2, pp.23-31. Reprints, Geneva forgeries of the 48m, 500m and 5s, and other forgeries and fraudulent postmarks: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.211 (Yvert 1-4 and 5-8). Andre Gely, “The Forged Classic Stamps of Japan And Their Expertication 1871-1875”, 1958, translated from the original French by Varro E. Tyler, Jr. and Chris Pickett, Jr., Japanese Philately, Vol. 18 (April 1963): 49-78. Forgeries of the Mon stamps: Arthur R. Gerhart, “Counterfeits of the Postage Stamps of Japan, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 29 (December 2, 1939): 312,13, continued at (December 9, 1939): 340,41,51 (48m), at (December 30, 1939): 424,25 (48m), at (January 13, 1940): 480,81,90,91 (100m), at (January 27, 1940): 538,39,47,48 (200m), and at (February 17, 1940): 620,21,38,39,42 (500m); Francis Louise Duncan (age 17), “Early Issues of Japanese Stamps”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 25 (February 1933): 277-79. Reprint of Scott 5 (no Syllabic): Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95. Characteristics of the genuine Mon stamps: E.F. Hurt, “Japan: The Forgeries Of The 1871-72 Issues”, The Record Of Philately, Vol.1, No.10 (January 1936): 112,13; J. Dorn (Publisher), The Forged Stamps of all Countries, pp.156,57

  • 4h. 500m “Dragon” stamp, 1871, inverted denomination. Michael Ruggiero, “Correcting the Record – The 500 Mon Dragon Invert”, Opinions V: Philatelic Expertizing – An Inside View, (The Philatelic Foundation, N.Y., N.Y., 1988): 245-50. Ron Casey, “Forgery of the 500 mon Dragon inverted center”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 68-71. Also see above.

  • 5. 1⁄2s “Dragon” stamp, 1872. Ron Casey, “Wada half sen Dragon forgery: newly discovered state”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (February 2000): 12-15. Reprint: Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95. Also see above.

  • 6,7. 1s,2s Dragons, 1872. 1896 imperforazte imitations for presentation book: Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue.

  • 6. 1s Blue, 1872. Illustration of State 1 of Wada Kotarō’s forgery (first time illustrated): Ron Casey, “Forgery CD-ROM – one that missed the boat“, Japanese Philately, Vol.57 (August 2002): cover and 99.

  • 6d. 1s Blue, Plate III. Fraudulent cancellation: Michael E. Ruggiero, “A Forger Outsmarts Himself”, Opinions VI: Philatelic Expertizing – An Inside View, (The Philatelic Foundation, N.Y., N.Y., 1992): 149-53.

  • 9-25. Cherry Blossoms (before syllabics), 1872-73 and 1874. The Cherry Blossoms and Dragons were printed from hand-engraved plates of 40. Each stamp in the sheet is slightly different from the others. For some stamps two or more plates were used, compounding the number of stamps with slight differences. Some imitations are signed with a mark; for the location and description of the of the mark, see “1-71″ above. A comprehensive treatment of imitations or forgeries: Ron Casey, Thomas L. Zane and Lois M. Evans-de Violini, Forgeries of the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban Postage Stamps of Japan, I.S.J.P. CD-Rom Monograph 1, 2nd Edition, 2002; an Update List is maintained by the I.S.J.P. at their website, http://isjp.org. Comprehensive treatment of characteristics of genuine stamps: Milton Montgomery, “The Japanese ‘Cherry Blossom’ Issues – 1872-1876 Characteristics Identifying Genuine Stamps”, Monograph No.2, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (June 1969); (this resource together with the CD identified above cover the subject of characteristics of Cherry Blossom forgeries and genuine stamps quite thoroughly). Varro E. Tyler and Milton T. Montgomery, “The Wada Cherry Blossom Forgeries”, Monograph No.6, Japanese Philately, Vol. 29 (August 1974). Hirose forgeries of Scott 10-12a,14a,15: Varro E. Tyler, “The Hirose forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (April 1969): 66-75. Forgeries and reprints of the issues of 1872-73, 1874, and 1875: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, pp.211,12 (Yvert 9-19, 20-31, 32-34, and 35-44). Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Characteristics of Genuine Japanese Stamps: Cherry Blossom Issues of 1872-1873”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 28 (April 1966): 559-70, continued at Vol. 29 (January 1967): 309-32. Characteristics of the genune stamps: Andre Gely, “The Forged Classic Stamps of Japan And Their Expertication 1871-1875”, 1958, translated from the original French by Varro E. Tyler, Jr. and Chris Pickett, Jr., Japanese Philately, Vol. 18 (April 1963): 49-78. Characteruistics of the genuine stamps of the 1872-73 issue: J. Dorn (Publisher), The Forged Stamps of all Countries, pp.157,58. See individual stamps below for more citations.

  • 9. 1⁄2-Sen, 1872,73. Michael E. Ruggiero, “A New Forgery – The Half-Sen Brown Native Paper of Japan”, Opinions III: Philatelic Expertizing – An Inside View, (The Philatelic Foundation, N.Y., N.Y., 1985): 181-84.

  • 9a. 1⁄2s, brown (“Kihanson” error), 1872. Varro E. Tyler, “Characteristics of Japanese Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 22 (April 1967): 149. Harold E.M. Bradshaw, “Forgery Identification Of Hand Engraved Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 14 (June 1959): 88,89, continued from (February 1959): 3.

  • 10. 1s blue, 1872,73. Michael E. Ruggiero, “The One Sen Blue of Japan 1872 – A Skillful Forgery”, The American Philatelic Congress Book 48 (1982): 29-32. Postal forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “A.M. Tracey Woodward’s Postal Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 23 (October 1968): 213-16. Hirose forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “The Hirose forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (April 1969): 66-75.
  • 11. 2s vermilion, 1872,73. Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30. Hirose forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “The Hirose forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (April 1969): 66-75.
  • 12. 2s dull rose, 1872,73. Spiro forgery: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22.
  • 13. 2s yellow (no syllabic), 1872,73. Paper LI, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, pp.122,23.
  • 14. 4s, 1872-73. George A. Fisher, Jr., “Another ‘formal 4′”, 55 Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 79. Varro Tyler, “The cautious collector’s alphabet”, Scott Stamp Monthly, Vol. 14 (April 1996): pp.8,10,11. Spiro forgery of 11,12,14,17: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30.
  • 17. 20s, 1872-73. Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30.

  • 18. 30s (without syllabic), 1872,73. Michael E. Ruggiero, “A Closer Look Was Needed – The 30 Sen Black and Gray of Japan, Native and Foreign Wove, Opinions IV: Philatelic Expertizing – An Inside View, (The Philatelic Foundation, N.Y., N.Y., 1987): 224-28. Paper LXVII, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, pp.156,57.
  • 24. 4s (without syllabic), 1874. Ramesden forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5.

  • 25. 30s, 1874. Fake made from 1962 Ministry of Postal Services sheet: Michael E. Ruggiero, note, Japanese Philately, Vol. 51 (August 1996): 181.

  • 28-54A. “Cherry blossom” issues, 1874-76. The Cherry Blossoms and Dragons were printed from hand-engraved plates of 40. Each stamp in the sheet is slightly different from the others. For some stamps two or more plates were used, compounding the number of stamps with slight differences.

    Some imitations are signed with a mark; for the location and description of the of the mark, see “1-71″ above. a-q. A comprehensive treatment of imitations or forgeries: Ron Casey, Thomas L. Zane and Lois M. Evans-de Violini, Forgeries of the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban Postage Stamps of Japan, I.S.J.P. CD-Rom Monograph 1, 2nd Edition, 2002; an Update List is maintained by the I.S.J.P. at their website, http://isjp.org. Comprehensive treatment of characteristics of genuine stamps: Milton Montgomery, “The Japanese ‘Cherry Blossom’ Issues – 1872-1876 Characteristics Identifying Genuine Stamps”, Monograph No.2, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (June 1969); (this resource together with the CD identified above cover the subject of characteristics of Cherry Blossom forgeries and genuine stamps quite thoroughly). Varro E. Tyler and Milton T. Montgomery, “The Wada Cherry Blossom Forgeries”, Monograph No.6, Japanese Philately, Vol. 29 (August 1974). Hand drawn alterations of syllabics: Yoshida Riichi, “Syllabic Alterations Of The Hand-Engraved Stamps of Japan”, translated from Japanese by Robert M. Spaulding, Japanese Philately (Bulletin), Vol. 8 (January 1953): 2-4 and Cover. Characteristics of the genune stamps: Andre Gely, “The Forged Classic Stamps of Japan And Their Expertication 1871-1875”, 1958, translated from the original French by Varro E. Tyler, Jr. and Chris Pickett, Jr., Japanese Philately, Vol. 18 (April 1963): 49-78. Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Characteristics of Genuine Japanese Stamps: Cherry Blossom Issues of 1872-1873”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 28 (April 1966): 559-70, continued at Vol. 29 (January 1967): 309-32. Forgeries and reprints of the issues of 1872-73, 1874, and 1875: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, pp.211,12 (Yvert 9-19, 20-31, 32-34, and 35-44). See individual stamps below for more citations.

    28. 2s on native paper, 1874. Reprint with syllabic “TA”: Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95.
  • 29. 6s on native paper, 1874. Postal forgery: H.G. Leslie Fletcher, Postal Forgeries of the World, pp.86,87. Spiro forgery: Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4
  • 32-34. 1⁄2s, blue 1s, 2s on foreign paper, 1874. Spiro forgeries: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Forgeries: Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30; for another view concerning the yellow 2s (Syllabic 15): R.E. Miller, “The Earliest Forgeries of Japanese Stamps, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (April 1969): 62,63. Postal forgery of the 1s: H.G. Leslie Fletcher, Postal Forgeries of the World, pp.86,87. Ramesden forgeries of the 1⁄2s and 1s: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5. Spiro forgery of the 1s: Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4. The 2s yellow on foreign paper, syllabic 16, is a remainder: Note, Japanese Philately, Vol.64 (February 2009):68, quoting from the Spink Shreves Galleries Catalogue for the January 2009 Collector’s Series Sale, item #28.
  • 35. 4s rose, 1874. Ramesden forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5.
  • 36. 6c garter, 1874. Postal forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “A.M. Tracey Woodward’s Postal Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 23 (October 1968): 213-16; H.G. Leslie Fletcher, Postal Forgeries of the World, pp.86,87. Spiro forgery: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Forgery: Harold E.M. Bradshaw, “Forgery Identification of Hand-Engraved Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 14 (February 1959): 3; Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30. Ramesden forgery: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5. Reprint with syllabic “RV”: Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95.
  • 37,38,39. 10s, 20s, 30s, 1874. Spiro forgeries of the 10s and 30s: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Forgery of the 30s: Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30. Reprints of the 20s, syllabics “RO” and “HA”: Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95.

    40-44. 1⁄2s,1s,4s,6s, Type A7,6s Type A8, 1875. Spiro forgeries: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Spiro forgery of the 1s: Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4. Ramsden forgeries of the 1s and 6s Type A8: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5. Forgeries of 4s and 6s Type A7: Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.528-30. Reprint of the 1⁄2s, syllabic “NI”: Varro E. Tyler, “Philatelic Heresy: Reprints of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (April 1980): 92-95.

  • 45-50. 10s, 12s, 15s 20s, 30s, 45s, Cherry Blossoms, 1875. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.212 (Yvert 32-34, 35-44). Forgeries, genuine and fraudulent postmarks: Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, pp.537-40. Wada forgeries of Scott 46 and 47: Ron Casey, “Use of Multiple Plates For Wada Cherry Blossom Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 48 (December 1993): 256-59. Ron Casey (based on discovery by the late George A. Fisher, Jr.), “15 sen Wada Cherry Blossom forgery – mystery state”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 60 (April 2005): 20,21. Ramesden forgery of the 20s: Varro E. Tyler, “The Ramsden Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (February 1973): 3-5. Spiro forgeries of the 12s, 20s, 39s, 45s: Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. Location of Sanko and Mozo marks on 12s,15s, and 45s, forgeries and facsimiles: Varro Tyler, Jr., “A Trio Of Japanese Classics”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 52 (August 25, 1951): 784,85; Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. II, pp.36,37; forgeries and fraudulent postmark: Paper LXIII, Lowell Ragatz (editor), The Spud Papers/ An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue Of Early Philatelic Forgeries, pp.147,48; forgeries: J. Dorn (Publisher), The Forged Stamps of all Countries, p.158.

  • 54A. 5s, Cherry Blossoms, without syllabic character, 1876. Spiro Brothers, Wado Kotaro, Hirose of Kobe and other forgeries: Varro E. Tyler, Jr. “Japan’s Last Etched Stamp – Genuine and Forged”, The American Philatelic Congress Book 31 (1965): 55-69. Spiro forgery: Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4. Reverend R.B. Earée, Album Weeds/ How to Detect Forged Stamps (Third Edition), Vol. 1, p.541. Location of Sanko and Mozo marks: Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. II, p.37 (Aretz numbers this Scott 62 but description is of Type A14, which is Scott 54A).

  • 55-84. “Kobans”, 1876-92.

    Some imitations are signed with a mark or have a printed “cancellation”; for the location of the mark and description of the cancellation, see: Lois M. Evans-de Violini, “Japanese Forgeries” (on the CD-ROM cited below); also see first section above. a-h Ron Casey, Thomas L. Zane and Lois M. Evans-de Violini, Forgeries of the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban Postage Stamps of Japan, I.S.J.P. CD-Rom Monograph 1, 2nd Edition, 2002; an Update List is maintained by the I.S.J.P. at their website, http://isjp.org. a,b,d,h Kr. Wilhelmsen and Varro E. Tyler, “The Koban forgeries of Japan”, Monograph No.8, Japanese Philately, Vol. 34 (April 1979). b Ron Casey, “Spiro Forgeries: Plate Production and Adaptations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 50 (December 1995): 244-49, continued at Vol. 52 (February 1997): 4. b,h Harold E.M. Bradshaw and Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “The Spiro forgeries of Japanese Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (February 1960): 11-22. h Fakes made by removal of telegraph cancellations and specimen marks: George J. Feldman, “The ‘Koban’ Series – 1876-1892”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 18 (August 1956): 598-600. Varro Tyler, Jr., “Sanko and Mozo on Japanese Forgeries”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 64 (March 2, 1957): 16,17. Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Characteristics of Genuine Japanese Stamps: Cherry Blossom Issues of 1872-1873”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 28 (April 1966): 559-70, continued at Vol. 29 (January 1967): 309-332.

    Forged cancellations on the classics. Wada forged cancellations on Scott 38,47,48: Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Two Wada Cancellations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 15 (June 1960): 104-6; Kristian Wilhelmsen, “The Handstamps on Wada Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (December 1980): 291-302. Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “A Forger Who Taunted His Victims”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 12 (May 1957): 85,86. Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “Numbers Game” (sequel to foregoing article), Japanese Philately, Vol. 34 (June 1979): 163. Fakes made by removal of telegraph cancellations and specimen marks: George J. Feldman, “The ‘Koban’ Series – 1876-1892”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 18 (August 1956): 598-600.

    Remainder cancellation on the classics. “Marukeshi” remainder cancellation on Scott 24-38: Yamamoto Kin’ichi (with commentary by M.E. Ruggiero) “Additions And Corrections To Dr. Ichida Soichi’s 1982 Book on The 1872-76 Cherry Blossom Series”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 46 (June 1991): 115-27, at p.120. Anon., “Non-Postal maru-ichi”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 82.

    Telegraph and other non-postal cancellations. George A. Fisher, Jr., “Japan’s Non-postal Cancellations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 23 (August 1968): 156-73. Anon., “Non-Postal maru-ichi”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 82. Anon., “Telegraphing on eBay”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 54 (October 1999): 190, continued in Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 12-15.

  • 85,86. Meiji Wedding Commemoratives, 1894. Fakes made by trimming perforations. Anon., “Those Imperforate Meiji Wedding Commemoratives”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 13 (February 1958): 7-9 (This is another view to that of Tracey Woodward, The Postage Stamps of Japan and Dependencies (London, Tokyo and Shanghai, 1928). Stamps cancelled in China or Korea with roman-letter double circle or single circle purported first-day cancellations dated 1894-03-09 were issued later and officially backdated to that date and should be considered backdated. CTOs: Charles A.L. Swenson, “The Silver Wedding Anniversary Commemoratives and First-Day Roman Letter, Double-Circle Cancellations”, Japanese Philately, Vol.64 (February 2009): 7,8.

  • 105. 20s value of regular issue of 1899-1907. H.G. Leslie Fletcher, Postal Forgeries of the World, p.87.

  • 110. Korean issue, 1905. Reprints: Varro Tyler, Jr., “Another Korean Stamp?”, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 53 (October 13, 1951): 175.

  • 154. Ceremonial Cap stamp, 1916. Felix D. Bertalanffy, “Forgeries II. 1915 Heir Apparent”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 30 (February 1975): 33,34,96.

  • 279. 14s coil stamp of regular issue of 1937-45. Anon. Note, Japanese Philately, Vol. 24 (June 1969): 149.

  • 331. 5s Togo value of regular issue of 1942-45. Leroy W.Gardner, “Wartime U.S. Postal Forgery of Japan’s 5-Sen Togo”, American Philatelist, Vol. 113 (January 1999): 62; correction at (February 1999): 24; Howard A. Daniel III, letter to the Editor in April 1999 issue, p.326; the Leroy W. Gardner article was reprinted in Japanese Philately, Vol. 54 (April 1999): 3-15, with extensive comment by Robert M. Spaulding.

  • 352,53,55-57,60,62-65,67. 3s,5s,10s,20s,30s,5y The Showa of the Third Showa Series, 1945-47 and 15s,39s,1y,1.30y and 2y of the First New Showa Series, 1946-47. Forgeries and fake postmarks: Ron Casey, I.S.J.P. Monograph 20: The Shōwa Forgeries of Japan, Supplement to Japanese Philately, Vol. 60 (June 2005). Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, pp.142-44. Unwatermarked forgeries and fraudulent postmarks. Sidney Peterman, “More on the Showa Forgeries, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (October 1980): 232-35. Showa forgeries and fraudulent cancellations: George A. Fisher, Jr., “Showa Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 30 (June 1975,): 99-102 and (October 1975): 226. Forgeries and fraudulent postmarks: Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “Forgeries of 1945-1946 Regular Stamps”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 17 (August 1962): 114-16,76. The 5s: Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “Forgery of the 5 Sen Airplane Stamp”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 17 (December 1962): 202. Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “Third Report On The Showa Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 18 (June 1963): 92,93. Forgeries and fraudulent postmarks: George A. Fisher, Jr., “Postal Markings“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 37 (April 1982): 51,52. Lithographed and typographed forgeries of the 15s, 1946-47: George A. Fisher, “Addenda to Showa Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 33 (June 1978): 126. Forgery of the 30s value of the First New Showa series, 1946-47, and fraudulent postmark: Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, p.143. Fraudulent Showa postmarks: Anon., “Showa Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 21 (February 1966): 30,31; Anon. Note, Japanese Philately, (April 1982): 51.

  • 396. Benkei, 1880 Locomotive, 1947. Anon. Note, Japanese Philately, Vol. 28 (June 1973): 150,51.

  • 400a,21a,73a,508b. Souvenir Sheets, 1947,1948,1949 and 1950. Kitte Kei-zai Sha imitations, Anon. Note, Japanese Philately, Vol. 25 (October 1970): 208.

  • 408. Overprinted Hokusai Souvenir Sheet, 1948. Anon., “A Forged Hokusai Overprint”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 48 (June 1993): 112.

  • 422a, 479a. Souvenir Sheets: Moronobu print, 1948 and Hiroshigi print, 1949. Kitte Keizoi Sha forgeries: Anon. Note, Japanese Philately, Vol. 20 (August 1965): 154,55.

  • 794. 10y Girl Scout and Flag stamp, 1963. Fake “mihon” overprint. Charles D. Simmons, “Forged Overprint”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 36 (June 1981): 116, continued at (December 1981): 280.

  • Maruichi postal cancellations distinguished from Maruichi telegraph and other non- postal cancellations: Charles A.L.Swenson, “Maruichi Variations“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 64 (October 2009): 307-28.

  • Telegraph cancellations. Anon., “Telegraphing on eBay”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 54 (October 1999): 190, continued at Vol. 55 (April 2000): 82. Telegraph and other non-postal cancellations. George A. Fisher, Jr., “Japan’s Non-postal Cancellations”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 23 (August 1968): 156-73. Anon., “Non-Postal maru-ichi”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 55 (April 2000): 82

  • Postal markings. George A. Fisher, Jr., “Postal Markings”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 42 (December 1987): 278-82, at pp.281,82.

  • Kamigata fraudulent postmarks: Ian T. Hamilton, “Curious Cancellations“, Stamp Collecting, Vol. 79 (February 27, 1953): 829.

  • Specimen overprints. Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “Specimen Overprints On Japanese Stamps” (in 7 parts), Japanese Philately, Vol. 12 (April 1957): 35-38; continued at (May 1957): 80-82, at (July 1957): 110-13, at (September 1957): 135,36, at October 1957): 164-67, at Vol. 13 (February 1958): 12,13, and at (April 1958): 51,52. Frederick H. Glockner. “The 19th Century Stamps of Japan”, Japanese Philatelist, Vol. 6 (December 1951): 124-27.

  • C1,C2. Overprinted Airmail stamps, 1919. Forged overprint. Alexander F. Newall, Airmail Stamps: Fakes & Forgeries, pp.156-61 (Sanabria Airmail Catalogue 1,2). George A. Fisher, Jr., “The 1919 ‘First Airmails’ of Japan”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 14 (December 1959): 229- 36. Wm. H. Talbot, “Overprinted Air’s C.1. & C.2.”, Japanese Philately (Bulletin), Vol. 4 (May 1949): 8,9. Anon., “Japan – The First Issue”, The Airpost Journal, Vol. 34 (July 1963): 280. Fraudulent Kaga Garan/Daishoji postmark and fraudulent postmark: Anon., Fakes & Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 35 (June 1980): 131-33. Fake large commemorative datestamp: Michael E. Ruggiero and Charles A.L. Swencon, “A Second Forged Large Commemorative Datestamp for 1919 First Airmail Flights“, Japanese Philately, Vol. 62 (August 2007): 138-140.

  • M1-M5. Military stamps, 1910-24. Forged gunji (military) overprint. Forged overprint on the 3s, 1914 based on the illustration in Stanley Gibbons catalogue: Varro E. Tyler, “Focus on Forgeries” #352, Linn’s Stamp News (May 7, 2001): 6. Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Notes On Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 17 (June 1962): 79,80. Varro E. Tyler, “Discovery Of Three New Major Varieties Of The Military Franchise Stamps of Japan”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 33 (February 1978): 33-40. Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. II, pp.39,40.

  • Offices Abroad:

    Tables of perforations of Japanese stamps used in China and Korea: George A. Fisher, Jr., “Perforations on Offices Abroad Stamps of Japan”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 32 (August 1977): 172-79.

  • Offices in Korea. Forged overprint: Varro E. Tyler, Jr., “Notes On Forgeries”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 17 (June 1962): 79,80. Forged overprint on the 11⁄2 Sen: Michael Ruggiero, “Expertizing Japan – The Offices in Korea 11⁄2Sen Isssue”, Opinions II: Philatelic Expertizing – An Inside View, (The Philatelic Foundation, N.Y., N.Y., 1984): 226-28. George A. Fisher, Jr, “Forged Overprint, Korea Offices 1-1/2 Sen”, Japanese Philately, Vol. 19 (October 1964): 196,97. Japanese postmarks used in Korea identified: John Gordon Bishop, “The Roman Letter Postmarks of Japan”, Monographs 7,7A, Japanese Philately, Vol. 34 (June 1979): 78-80,90,91; Lynn R. Brady, “Japanese Postmarks used in Korea”, The American Philatelic Congress Book 31 (1965): 147-52.

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