Forged stamps of Fiume

Rijeka

The stamps of Rijeka were exceptionally often forged, due to rarity and great demand for stamps of the states formed after the collapse of the great empires. Pressured by philatelic and trade circles in Italy and Switzerland, the first forgeries were produced at the time of the first temporary issues. It’s important to bear in mind that the originality of a stamp or a postmark, or the age of a collection aren’t sufficient for an average originality evaluation. Many forged stamps have a signature overleaf or a hall-mark of former traders or even stamp examiners who, on purpose or by accident, marked forged stamps as genuine. The most frequent and known hall-mark on forgeries is PAPE and Petric. Every stamp has to be examined, because even the cheap values were forged, from the basic stamp to various overprints on them. The best method is comparison to genuine stamps. The biggest problems are the FIUME overprint forgeries on Hungarian stamps, and the easiest to recognize is the forgeries of ordinary and commemorative issues having neither the roughness nor the structure of the paper as on the original stamp, save the color and the print.

The elaborated samples and pictures on this site are only the most frequent forgeries, regularly found in auctions. Many professional traders and auction houses sell forgeries, convinced that the stamps are genuine. There are some very good forgeries of some of the rarer issues, so it is recommended to submit all expensive issues for examination by official examiners of Rijeka stamps.

Forgeries of ordinary and commemorative issues can be sorted in three groups of forgeries:

1. forgeries very similar to originals by print and paper, but with characteristic errors in drawings

2. forgeries on smooth, easily recognizable, mostly white paper with a photographic drawing transfer

3. forgeries on rough, easily recognizable, unfinished paper with a rather precise drawing transfer

Fiume_Flag

1918

FIUME Overprints

 
Fiume_Provisional_Genuine_Overprints
 
Fiume_Machine_Overprints_Type1_Genuine

1919

Symbol of Freedom

 
fiume_1919_symbol-of-freedom_2c_forgery
fiume_1919_symbol-of-freedom_3c_forgery
fiume_1919_symbol-of-freedom_5c_forgery

1919

City Hall

 
fiume_1919_city-hall_10c_forgery_type1
fiume_1919_city-hall_15c_forgery_type1
fiume_1919_city-hall_20c_forgery_type1

1919

Statue of Liberty

 
fiume_1919_statue-of-liberty_45c_genuine
fiume_1919_statue-of-liberty_5f-25c_posta-fiume_genuine

1919

Italian Cruiser in Fiume Harbor

 
fiume_1919_harbor_50cent_forgery_type_2
fiume_1919_harbor_1cor_forgery_type_3
fiume_1919_harbor_2cor_forgery_type_2
fiume_1919_harbor_5cor_forgery_type_2
fiume_1919_harbor_posta-fiume_10cor_forgery_smooth
fiume_1919_harbor_15f-60cent_forgery
fiume_1919_harbor_15f-30cent_forgery
fiume_1919_harbor_25f-50cent_forgery
fiume_1919_harbor_55f-1cor_genuine
fiume_1919_harbor_55f-2cor_genuine

1919

Student Fund

 
fiume_1919_student_fund_5c_genuine
fiume_1919_student_fund_5cor_genuine
 
fiume_1919_student_fund_80c_genuine

1920-1921

Gabriele d’Annunzio

 
fiume_1920_gabrielle_d-annunzio_forgeries

1920

Military Stamps

 
fiume_military_stamps_michel1_forgery_type2
fiume_military_stamps_michel2_forgery_type1
fiume_military_stamps_michel3_forgery_type1
fiume_military_stamps_michel4_forgery_type1

1920

Occupation of Canaro

 
fiume_military_post_reggenza_italiana_overprint_forgery_series

1921

Special Delivery
Surcharged
‘Governo Provvisirio’

 
fiume_1921_special_delivery_surcharged_governo_provvisorio_30_genuine

1923

Special Delivery

 
fiume_1923_special_delivery_60c_genuine
fiume_1923_special_delivery_2lire_genuine

1923-1924

Various designs

 
fiume_1923_series_forgeries

Thanks to Ivan Martinâs, Verband Philatelistischer Prüfer E.V, for images and Analysis of Fiume forgeries.

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Literature

For further research

  • 1-26. Overprinted issues, 1918, 19. Forged overprints: Angelo G. Giumanini, “Fiume 1918-24: Tom’s Troubled History Reflected in Philately”, American Philatelist, Vol. 106 (March 1992): 226-32, at p.228. Forgeries of the “Franco” overprints on Scott 24-26: Roy A. Dehn, “Fiume: The Franco Forgeries”, Fil – Italia, Vol. 16 (Autumn 1990): 223-28. Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at pp.22,23; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95. Forged overprint, 1918 issue: One of several forged overprints is described: The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, pp.70,71 (Yvert 1-28). Genuine 10f overprint on the Hungarian harvesting stamp is inverted: Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue.

  • 27-29. 2c, 3c and 5c values of the first definitive issue, 1919. 27: Robert E. Lana, “Fiume’s first stamp set without overprints” Linn’s Stamp News (July 14, 1997): 30. Varro E. Tyler, “Forgeries of the First Definitive Issue of Fiume”, American Philatelist, Vol. 98 (October 1984): 995,96.

  • 30-32. 10c, 15c and 20c values of the first definitive issue, 1919. Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, p.103. Forgery of the 15c stamp: Robert E. Lana, “Fiume’s first stamp set without overprints” Linn’s Stamp News (July 14, 1997): 30; Evert Klaseboer, Stamps: Catalogue, CD Rom, Vol.2 (Singapore, February 2008). Varro E. Tyler, “Forgeries of the First Definitive Issue of Fiume”, American Philatelist, Vol. 98 (October 1984): 995,96, at p.996.

  • 43. 10cor value of the first definitive issue, 1919. Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, p.104. Robert E. Lana, “Fiume’s first stamp set without overprints” Linn’s Stamp News (July 14, 1997): 30. Varro E. Tyler, “Forgeries of the First Definitive Issue of Fiume”, American Philatelist, Vol. 98 (October 1984): 995,96, at p.996. The Serrane Guide/ Stamp Forgeries of the World to 1926, p.71 (Yvert 32-48).

  • 86-99. d’Annuncio issue of 1920. Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, p.105. Forgery of the 3 l: Roy A. Dehn, “Further Notes on Fiume”, American Philatelist, Vol. 94 (July 1980): 626. Forgeries and CTO: Roy A. Dehn, “D’Annunzio and the march on Fiume: Part One”, Stamp Magazine (U.K.), Vol. 44 (January 1978): 67-69. Two Forgeries: Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.22,23; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95. Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. I, pp.18,19. Forgeries of the 1 l and 5 l: Fritz Billig, Billig’s Philatelic Handbook, Vol. 7, pp.111-13. William Bacon, “Phony Philately” column, Weekly Philatelic Gossip, Vol. 65 (October 5, 1957): 185,86. A.C. Johnson, “The Counterfeit Detector”, The S.P.A. Journal, Vol. 5 (December 1942): 126.

  • 100-33, 1920. Two forgeries of basic stamp, overprint and emblem on the back of the less common stamps: Roy A. Dehn, “Fiume: The Issue For Military Post”, Fil – Italia, Vol. 15 (Summer 1989): 107-18. See stamps below for more citations.

  • 101-3. 10c, 20c, and 25c, Anniversary of d’Annuncio occupation of Fiume, new designs, 1920. Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. I, p.19. Roy A. Dehn “D’Annunzio and the march on Fiume: Part One“, Stamp Magazine (U.K.), Vol. 44 (January 1978): 67-69. Forgery of the 25c: Roy A. Dehn, “Further Notes on Fiume“, American Philatelist, Vol 94 (July 1980): 626. Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.24; republished in 3 Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95. Alden C. Johnson, Forgeries Old and New, Vol. 1, pp.14,15.

  • 104-21, E4-E9. Legionary series, 1920. Forged overprint: Roy A. Dehn, “Fiume: Caldiron’s ‘Stroll through Fiume'”, Fil – Italia, Vol. 18 (Spring 1992): 68,69. Roy A. Dehn, “D’Annunzio and the march on Fiume: Part Two”, Stamp Magazine (U.K.), Vol. 44 (February 1978): 68-70. Forgeries of basic stamp and overprint: Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.24; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95. Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. I, pp.18,19. H. Bynof-Smith, Forged Postage Stamps of Europe and Colonies, Vol. 1, pp.54,55.

  • 122-47. Overprinted issues: “ARBE”, “Veglia”, and “Governo Provvisorio”, 1920 and 1921. Forgeries of Design Type A11, CTO and characteristics of genuine overprint on 122-33, forged overprint and distinguishing between local and Milan overprints, all on 134-37: Roy A. Dehn, “D’Annunzio and the march on Fiume: Part Two”, Stamp Magazine (U.K.), Vol. 44 (February 1978): 68-70. Forgery of the overprint on the 1l value of issue of 1921: Roy A. Dehn, “Further Notes on Fiume”, American Philatelist, Vol. 94 (July 1980): 626. Measurements of the genuine overprints on “ARBE” and “VEGLIA” overprinted issues, 1920: Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.25; republished in 3 Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95; Scott Classic Specialized Catalogue.

  • 172-83. Issue of 1923. Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 25; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95. Frank Aretz, Know Your Stamps, Vol. I, pp.18,19. Forgeries of the Venetian ship and Roman Arch: Varro Tyler, Linn’s Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to Forgeries of Common Stamps, Revised, Expanded Edition, pp.106,7.

  • 184-95. First overprinted issue of 1924. Forged overprint and basic stamp: Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.25; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95.

  • 196-207. Dated overprint, 1924. Forgeries of the basic stamp and overprint: Roy A. Dehn, “Poor Forged Fiume”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (First Series), Vol. 38 (October 1964): 21-25, at p.25; republished in Fil – Italia, Vol. 3 (Spring 1977): 88-95.

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